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Psalter of Theodore of Caesarea, Byzantine, 1066AD
Studite Psalter


f.7r Sleeping Guards at the Sepulcre


f.10v Archers shooting at the just man


f.12r Warriors and David in pit


f.32v Sleeping Guards at the Sepulcre


f.36v Seven sleepers of Ephesus


f.45v The betrayal


f.63v Siege where Uriah died


f.65v King Saul and David


f.67r David praying / King Saul and soldiers


f.69v David and two foreigners


f.73r Byzantine soldiers in scale armour & chauses


f.74v (upper) David enthroned & guards


f.74v (lower) Soldiers of Sobal burning / arrival of Joab


f.75r Constantine mounted with cross attacked by archers


f.77v King David with guards


f.85v St. Procopius mounted


f.87v Christ on Cross pierced with the lance


f.92r (lower) Adoration of the Magi


f.105v (upper) Byzantine cavalry & defeated enemy


f.123r (right) Massacre of the Innocents



f.144r (lower) Phineas executing judgement


f.95v (lower) St. Anthimus and the twenty thousand martyrs of Nicomedia


f.98r (upper) Two mounted soldiers


f.145r Hebrews defeated by their enemies


f.178v (lower) Warrior with mace and shield


f.181r Death of Absalom


f.182r David and Goliath


f.190v David meets Saul enthroned


f.199r Habakkuk the Prophet / angel slaying the ungodly


f.191r (lower) David defeats Goliath


Psalter, including Psalm 151 and The Book of Odes (Rahlfs 1088). Decoration: The first two psalms, with the titles and initial letters of every verse of the remainder, are written in gold. The manuscript is profusely illustrated throughout with miniatures painted on the margins of the leaves.
Language: Greek, Ancient
Physical Description
  Material: Parchment.
  Foliation: ff 208.
  Dimensions: 230 x 220 mm.
  Binding: Full goat leather binding, 20th century, British Library.
  Scribe: Monk and presbyter Theodoros (of Caesarea)
Ownership
Origin: Eastern Mediterranean (Constantinople). Provenance: Theodore, protopresbyter of the Studios Monastery in Constantinople, made the manuscript for Abbot Michael, in 1066 (colophon, f 208r). Owned by Henry Perigal Borrell of Smyrna, who is reported to have obtained it from the library of Archbishop of Scio (diary of Frederick Madden, 2 February 1853). Purchased at sale of Henry Perigal Borrell, Sotheby’s, 2 February 1853, lot 65.
Source: British Library Add MS 19352, Theodore Psalter


Referenced as figure 224 in The military technology of classical Islam by D Nicolle
224. Manuscript, Studite Psalter 1066 AD, Byzantine, British Lib., Ms. Add. 19352, ff. 41, 45, 73, 74, 77, 99, 123, 141, 178 and 190, London.
Pole-Arms for cut and thrust by David Nicolle, an extract from The military technology of classical Islam


Referenced as figure 98 in Arms and armour of the crusading era, 1050-1350 by Nicolle, David. 1988 edition
98A-98S     Studite Psalter, Byzantine manuscript, 1066 A.D. (British Library, Ms. Add. 19352, London, England)

98A—f.45; “The Betrayal”; 98B—f.7; 98C-98D—f.41[v]; 98E—f.65[63v Uriah] “overthrown warrior”; 98F—f.87[v] “Crucifixion”; 98G—f.74 “Job” [Joab]; 98H—f.73; 98I—f.98; 98J—f.123 “Massacre of the Innocents”; 98K—f.178; 98L—f.141; 98M-98Q—f.190[v]; 98R—f.191 “Goliath’s helmet”; 98S—f.182 “Goliath”.
The Studite Psalter is an important source in the study of Byzantine arms for a number of reasons, its date and provenance are known and its figures are relatively free from conventional archaisms. Among the weapons shown in these pictures are single- (98A) and double-edged swords (98G, 93H and 98J), maces including an early representation of a knobbed or flanged variety (98A, 98D, 98G and 98K) and a double-headed axe quite unlike those in the usual European tradition (98C). Also present are perhaps stylized representations of the improvised weapons used by a peasant levy (98P and 98Q) [letters showing through from other side]. Bows are conspicuously absent [see 10v, 63v & 75r]. Shields include small kite-shaped (98F), larger round (98G) and small oval (98H) varieties. Helmets are mostly conical, one perhaps being of segmented construction (98B). They have aventails or detachable neckguards. On one occasion such a helmet has been thrown off its wearer’s head and suggests that an aventail could come adrift easily (98R). Armour consists of a short mail hauberk, in one picture clearly lacking the upper-arm defences of strips or splints which pose such problems of interpretation (98S). Elsewhere there is an early representation of mail chausses (98H), the lower parts of which are probably hidden inside the wearer’s leggings or boots.



See also The Cynegetica of Pseudo-Oppian, Byzantine, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana Ms Grec 479, Venice, 11th century
The Hidden Church (Sakli Kilise) Cappadocia, Turkey, showing Byzantine soldiers, by Steven Lowe
Other Byzantine Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers