|A detail of David fighting Goliath, Paris Psalter, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS. gr. 139
|The Soldiers on the left, Paris Psalter||Goliath's helmet, Paris Psalter||The Soldiers on the right, Paris Psalter|
Paris psalter (BnF MS Grec 139), folio 4v
The Paris Psalter (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, MS. gr. 139), designated by siglum 1133 (Rahlfs), is a Byzantine illuminated manuscript containing 449 folios and 14 full-page miniatures "in a grand, almost classical style", as the Encyclopædia Britannica put it. Together with Basil I's Homilies of St Gregory Nazianzus, the Paris Psalter is considered a key monument of the so-called Macedonian Renaissance in Byzantine art during the 10th century.
This and other miniatures are so Hellenistic in execution and so unlike the received notion of what medieval art in general and Byzantine art in particular should look like, that most 19th-century authorities dated the manuscript to the time of Justinian. The Byzantists Hugo Buchthal and Kurt Weitzmann, however, conclusively demonstrated that the book was created in the 10th century.
Image Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS. gr. 139
Referenced on p33 MAA-89 Byzantine Armies 886-1118 by Ian Heath & Angus McBride:
Details worthy of notice in this 10th-century David and Goliath illumination from the Paris Psalter are, in the upper scene, Goliath's crested helmet with aventail of leather strips and his javelin with butt-spike, and in the lower scene David's one-edged paramerion. Note also the spiked helmets at left and right. The shields are fairly certainly convex here, and armour appears to be leather. (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris)