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Figures in

M. GORELIK, "Oriental Armour of the Near and Middle East from the Eighth to the Fifteenth Centuries as Shown in Works of Art", in: Islamic Arms and Armour, ed. ROBERT ELGOOD, London 1979


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Fig. 1. Stone sculpture c.740, Khirbat al-Maljar, Syria.


Figs. 2, 3. Bronze bowl of Mamlūk Sultān Aybak c.1250, Damascus. (Formerly in F. Martin Collection)


Fig. 4. Late twelfth century pottery statuette, found at Raqqa. (Museum Dahlem, Berlin)


Fig. 5. Kite shield from late twelfth century Raqqa bowl. (Berlin State Museum)


Fig. 6. Late twelfth to early thirteenth century mail armour from an al-Mina cup, Syria.


Fig. 7. Helmet from early thirteenth century Raqqa pottery. (National Museum, Damascus)


Figs. 8, 9. Boot and helmet from miniatures of Materia Medica by Dioscorid, painted by ʿAbdallāh ibn al-Faḍl, Iraq, c.1224. (British Museum)


Fig. 10. Bronze coin minted by Artuqids of Āmid, c .twelfth century, North Mesopotamia.


Figs. 11-20. Armour styles from Mosul miniatures.


12, 16, 19 (British Museum add. 7170, c.1220)


11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20 (Biblioteca Apostolica, Vatican, Syr. 559 c.1220)


Fig. 21. C.tenth century shield, Egypt. (Nationale Bibliothek, Vienna, Pere. no 954)


Fig. 22. Figure from ivory panel, c.eleventh century, Egypt. (Cairo Museum of Islamic Art)


Fig. 23. C.eleventh century drawing, Egypt. (Cairo Museum of Islamic Art)


Fig. 24. C.twelfth century painted drawing, Egypt. (British Museum)


Figs. 25, 26. Shields from paintings in the Capella Palatina, Palermo, Sicily, c.1140.


Figs. 27, 28. Shields from twelfth century ivory coffer, Sicily. (Berlin State Museum)


Figs. 29, 30. Shields from Coptic Evangel miniatures from Damietta, c. 1180, Egypt. (Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, Man. Copte. 13)


Fig. 31. Figure from coin of Yazīd ibn al-Muḥallab, Jūzjān, early eighth century. (G. C. Miles, ‘The iconography of Umayyad coinage’, PI. 16, Ars Orientalis , viii, 1959)


Fig. 32. Separ shield from pottery bowl of North Iran, ninth-tenth centuries. (Louvre, Paris)


Figs. 33-37. Armour styles of tenth century.


33. (Tehran, coll. Foroughi)


34. (Berlin, Museum of Islamic Art)


35-36. (Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City)


37. (Richard Frei, Nasledie Irana, Moscow, 1972, ill. 136)








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Figs. 38, 39. Styles of armour from painted tile, early thirteenth century, Kāshān. (Boston Museum of Fine Arts)


Figs. 40, 44-51. Styles of armour from painted plate, early thirteenth century, Kāshān. (Freer Gallery of Art, Washington)


Fig. 41. Warrior from panel of stucco relief, late twelfth to early thirteenth century. (Formerly in Demotte Collection)


Fig. 42. Leg defences from Rayy stucco relief c.1195 (?). (Pennsylvania Museum of Art)


Fig. 43. Shield from early thirteenth century painted bowl from Saveh. (Collection Mousa, Tehran)


Figs. 52-76. Helmets, shields and armour from the miniatures Varqeh va-Golshāh poem by ʿAyyūqī; painted by ʿAbd al-Muʾmin ibn Muḥammad, first quarter of the thirteenth century. (Topkapu Saray Museum, Hazine 841) 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74, 75 76


Fig. 77. Warriors from stone relief, later twelfth to early thirteenth centuries, from Konya. (Cinili Kosk, Istanbul)


Figs. 78-81. Saljuq Turks depicted on Byzantine miniature from twelfth century. (Miniatures from Octateuch, Izmir)


Fig. 82. Warrior from mural painting from cave church of St George, Kirk Dam, Cappadocia, c.1285.


Fig. 83. Shīrvān warrior, painted bowl from Baylakan (Oren-Kala) from twelfth to thirteenth centuries. (State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad)


Fig. 84. Armour from Armenia, early tenth century, stone relief on a church in Akhtamar, Greater Armenia.


Fig. 85. Wrist length armour sleeves depicted in silver icon from eleventh century, Shemokmedi, Georgia. (State Museum of Art of Georgian SSR)


Fig. 86. Silver icon of St George, from Saakao, Georgia, early eleventh century. (State Museum of Art of Georgian SSR)








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Figs. 87-96. Iranian armour.


87. Kitāb-i Samak Ayyār, by Ṣadaqa Shīrāzī, Shiraz, 1330-1340. (Bodleian Library, Oxford, Ouseley 381)


88. Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Tabriz or Shiraz, c.1320. (Formerly in W. Schulz Collection)


89. 90. Managi al-Hayyavān by ibn Bakhtishu, Marāfī, c. 1294-1299. (Pierpont Morgan Library, New York)


91-93. Miniature from album, Tabriz, early fourteenth century. (Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Diez A, fol. 70, S.7)


94. Shāh-Nāmeh. op. cit.


95, 96. Jāmiʿ al-Tawārīkh by Rashīd al-Dīn, c.1314. (Royal Asiatic Society, London, Morley 1)


Figs. 97-100. Western European representations of Islamic warriors, twelfth to thirteenth centuries.


97. Vitrage (window painting) formerly in the church of St Denis, Paris, twelfth century.


98. Vitrage in Notre Dame, Chartres, early thirteenth century.


99. Italian Mosaic, c.1148, Museum Leone in Verchelli, Piedmont.


100. Mural painting, c. 1150 in Cathedral, Le Puy.


Figs, 101-111. Lamellar and laminated armour constructions: the khuyagh ; the cut ‘corset-cuirass’.


101, 102. Jāmiʿ al-Tawārīkh by Rashīd al-Dīn, Tabriz, c.1314. (Royal Asiatic Society, Morley 1)


103. Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Shiraz, c.1331. (Topkapu Saray Museum, Istanbul, Hazine 1479)


104. Traditional Iranian armour from the Kitāb-i Samak Ayyār by Ṣadaqa Shīrāzī, c. 1330-1340. (Bodleian Library, Ouseley 381)


105-111. [Great Mongol] Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Tabriz, c. 1330-1350. (Formerly in Demotte Collection) 105 106 107 108 109 110 111


Figs. 112-117. Lamellar and laminated armour constructions: the khuyagh, the cut ‘coat’.


112, 113, 115. Jāmiʿ al-Tawārīkh by Rashīd al-Dīn, Tabriz, c.1314. (Royal Asiatic Society, Morley 1)


114, 116. Miniatures from album, Tabriz, early fourteenth century. (Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Diez A)


117. Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Tabriz, c. 1330-1350. (Formerly Demotte Collection)





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Figs. 118-122. Early fourteenth century Iran: the Mongol khatangku dehel


118, 119, 121. Jāmiʿ al-Tawārīkh by Rashīd al-Dīn, Tabriz, c. 1306. (Edinburgh University Library, arab. MS 20)


120, 122. Jāmi' al-Tawārīkh by Rashīd al-Dīn, Tabriz, c.1314. (Royal Asiatic Society, Morley 1)


Figs 123-125. Persian khaftān.


123-124. Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Shiraz or Tabriz, c.1320. (Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Diez 1 [A fol. 71 & Schulz-Gutman Shahnama, Isfahan, Persia, c.1330-1340AD. Metropolitan Museum of Art 1974.290])


125. Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Shiraz or Tabriz, c.1320. (Formerly W. Schulz Collection)


Fig. 126. [1st Small] Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Shiraz, c.1330.


Fig. 127. Mongol-Persian combined armour, Kitāb-i Samak Ayyār by Sadaga Shīrāzī, c.1330-1340. (Bodleian Library, Ouseley 381)


Fig. 128. Incomplete, [Freer Small] Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Tabriz or Shiraz, c.1320. (Freer Gallery of Art, Washington)


Figs. 129, 130. Coat and shirt of mail.


129. Kitāb-i Samak Ayyār by Sadaga Shīrāzī, c.1330-1340 (Bodleian Library, Ouseley 381)


130. [Injuid] Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Shiraz, c.1341. (Coll. of Nazar-agha)


Figs. 131-165. Helmets and shields in Iran, early fourteenth century.


131-140. Album miniatures, Tabriz, early fourteenth century. (Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Diez A [fol. 70]) 131, 132, 133, 134, 135
[Jami‛ al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din. Topkapi Sarai Museum, Ms Hazine 1653] 136-140


141, 142. Jāmiʿ al-Tawārīkh by Rashīd al-Dīn, Tabriz, c.1306. (Edinburgh University Library, arab. MS 20)


143-145, 160-164. Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Shiraz, c.1331.
143-145, 164 (Topkapu Saray Museum, Hazine 1479) 143 144 145 164


146-155, 158. Kitāb-i Samak Ayyār by Ṣadaqa Shīrāzī, Shiraz, c.1330-1340. (Bodleian Library, Ouseley 381 [379 & 380]) 146, 147 148 149 150 151 152, 153 154, 155


156. Album miniature, Tabriz, 1330-1350.


157, 158. [Great Mongol] Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Tabriz, c.1330-1350. (Formerly Demotte Collection)


[159 Kitāb-i Samak Ayyār by Ṣadaqa Shīrāzī, Shiraz, c.1330-1340. (Bodleian Library, Ouseley 381)]
160 Kitāb-i Samak Ayyār by Ṣadaqa Shīrāzī, Shiraz, c.1330-1340. (Bodleian Library, Ouseley 379)]


161, 163. Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Shiraz, c.1333. (State Public Library [Saltykov-Stchedrin], Leningrad, Dorn 329)
[163 Kitāb-i Samak Ayyār by Ṣadaqa Shīrāzī, Shiraz, c.1330-1340. (Bodleian Library, Ouseley 381)]]


162. Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Shiraz, c.1341. (Collection of Nazar-aga)


165. Jāmi' al-Tawārīkh by Rashīd al-Dīn, Tabriz, c.1306. (Royal Asiatic Society, Morley 1)


Figs. 166, 167. From a bronze dish, Mosul, Iraq, late thirteenth early fourteenth centuries. (Formerly Demotte Collection)


Fig. 168. Bronze pen case, Mosul, Iraq, c. 1406. (Louvre, Paris)


Figs. 169, 170. From the bronze ‘Baptistry of St Louis’ bowl, Damascus, Syria, c. 1290-1310. (Louvre, Paris)









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Figs. 171-182. Armour styles in the second half of the fourteenth century, Iran.


171, 172. Miniatures from album, Tabriz, c.1370-1380. (Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Diez A)


173. Drawing from album (Baghdad or Tabriz) late fourteenth century. (Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Diez A)


174. Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Shiraz, c.1370. (Topkapu Saray Museum, Hazine 1511)


175- 182. Miniatures from albums of Shāh-Nāmeh c.1370-1380.


175. 180. (Topkapu Saray Museum, Hazine 2160)


176-179, 181, 182. (Topkapu Saray Museum, Hazine 2153) 176 177, 178 179 181, 182


Figs. 183-185. Armour from Iraq, late fourteenth to the mid-fifteenth centuries.


183. From the Kitāb al-Bulhān, Baghdad, c.1399. (Bodleian Library, or. 133)


184. A helmet from the Astrological Tractate by Abū Ma'shar, late fourteenth century. (Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris)


185. Khamseh by Jāmī, Baghdad, c.1465. (India Office, London, no. 1284)


Figs. 186-196. A variety of armour from Iran, first half of the fifteenth century.


186. [Juki] Shāh-Nāmeh by Ferdawsī, Herat, c.1440. (Royal Asiatic Society, Morley 239)


187.Shāh-Nāmeh, Shiraz, c.1410-1411. (British Museum, Add. 27261)


188, [192]. From Iskandar Anthology, Shiraz, c.1410. (Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon)


189, 190. Miniatures from album, Tabriz, early fifteenth century. (Topkapu Saray Museum)


191. Shāh-Nāmeh, Shiraz, 1425. (Bodleian Library, Add. 176)


192-195. Shāh-Nāmeh, Herat, c.1429-1430. (Library of Golestan Palace-Museum, Tehran) 192 193 194, 195


196. Shāh-Nāmeh, Shiraz, c.1420. (British Museum, no. 1948-10-9-052)








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Figs. 197-208. Khurasan late fifteenth century. Pictures painted by Behzéd and his school.


197, 198. Khamseh by Neżāmī. Herat. c. 1493. (British Museum. Add. 25900) 197 198


199, 203, 204, 205-207. From Zāfār-Nāma by Sharaf al-Dīn ʿAli Yazdī Herat. c.1495. (Boston Museum of Fine Arts [Garrett Library, Baltimore]) 199 202 203 204 205 206 207


200, 201, op. cit. late fifteenth century. (Pierpont Morgan Library. New York)


Fig. 208. op. cit. late fifteenth century. (Metropolitan Museum. New York)






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See also Illustrations referenced by The military technology of classical Islam by David Nicolle
Index of Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers